TPXO Global Tidal Models

TPXO is a series of fully-global models of ocean tides, which best-fits, in a least-squares sense, the Laplace Tidal Equations and altimetry data. Each next model in TPXO series is based on updated bathymetry and assimilates more data compared to previous versions. All TPXO models were obtained with OTIS , the software, implementing methods described in details by Egbert, Bennett, and Foreman,1994 and further by Egbert and Erofeeva,2002.

The TPXO models include complex amplitudes of MSL-relative sea-surface elevations and transports/currents for eight primary (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1), two long period (Mf,Mm) and 3 non-linear (M4, MS4, MN4) harmonic constituents (plus 2N2 and S1 for TPXO9 only).

TPXO9 versions starting from v2 and v5a include minor constituents: 2Q1, J1, L2, M3, MU2, NU2, OO1.

You have to download latest update of OTPS(nc) to be able to work with added constituents.

TPXO solutions are provided in binary and netcdf formats. The binary format can be read using OTPS (Fortran) or TMD (Matlab) packages.

TPXO global tide models are available for academic research, and other non-commercial uses and require registration.


Read more on TPXO8-atlas

Read more on TPXO9-atlas


To refer to our models/software in your publications please use the citation:

Egbert, Gary D., and Svetlana Y. Erofeeva. "Efficient inverse modeling of barotropic ocean tides." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 19.2 (2002): 183-204.

Check out our TPXO Web Service to get tide predictions from TPXO9-atlas at any location and time.